Updated on: December 17, 2018
- 1 Introduction
- 2 What is a multimeter and why do you need one?
- 3 What should multimeters measure?
- 4 What Do Each Of the Symbols Mean?
- 5 Exactly how to Utilize a Multimeter
- 6 Components of Multimeters
- 7 Measuring Voltage
- 8 Measuring Resistance
- 9 Testing Continuity
- 10 Changing the Fuse
This guide will show you exactly how to make use of a digital multimeter (DMM), an indispensable tool that you can make use of to identify circuits, find out about other individuals’s digital styles, and also even for Ohms. Thus the ‘multi’-‘meter’ or numerous dimension name.
The most basic things we measure are voltage and also current. A multimeter is likewise fantastic for some standard peace of mind checks and troubleshooting. Is your circuit not working? Does the button work? Put a meter on it! The multimeter is your first protection when troubleshooting a system. In this tutorial we will certainly cover measuring voltage, current, resistance and continuity.
Every fixer should know their method around a multimeter, which has simply north of a zillion makes use of for screening electronic parts as well as circuits.
In this tutorial we’re mostly likely to show you just how to make use of a multimeter. This tutorial is mostly resolved for newbies that are beginning in electronics as well as have no concept just how to use a multimeter and also how it can be helpful. We’ll explore one of the most typical functions on a multimeter as well as exactly how to measure current, voltage, resistance and how to inspect continuity.
What is a multimeter and why do you need one?
A multimeter is a measurement tool definitely needed in electronic devices. It incorporates three vital functions: a voltmeter, ohmeter, as well as ammeter, as well as sometimes continuity.
The tool enables you to understand what is taking place in your circuits. Whenever something in your circuit isn’t functioning, it will certainly assist you fixing. Right here’s some situations in electronic devices projects that you’ll find the multimeter useful:
- is the switch on?
- is this cord carrying out the electrical power or is it damaged?
- exactly how much current is streaming with this led?
- just how much power do you have left on your batteries?
What should multimeters measure?
Nearly all multimeters can measure voltage, current, as well as resistance.
Various multimeters have a continuity check, leading to a loud beep if 2 things are electrically connected. This is useful if, as an example, you are developing a circuit as well as attaching cords or soldering; the beep shows everything is linked as well as nothing has actually come loose. You can additionally utilize it to make certain two points are not connected, to aid protect against brief circuits.
A lot of multimeters likewise have a diode check function. A diode resembles a one-way shutoff that just allows electrical power flow in one instructions. The specific feature of the diode check can differ from one type to another. If you’re collaborating with a diode and also can’t tell which means it goes in the circuit, or if you’re not sure the diode is working properly, the check feature can be rather convenient. If your DMM has a diode check function, read the manual to discover precisely how it functions.
Advanced models might have various other features, such as the ability to measure and also determine various other electrical elements, like transistors or capacitors. Considering that not almost all multimeters have these attributes, we will certainly not cover them in this tutorial. You can read your multimeter’s handbook if you require to make use of these features.
What Do Each Of the Symbols Mean?
There’s a whole lot taking place when you take a look at the selection knob, yet if you’re just going to be doing some fundamental things, you will not even make use of fifty percent of all the setups. All the same, below’s a run-through of what each symbol means:
Direct Current Voltage (DCV):every now and then it will be denoted with a V– rather. This setup is made use of to measure straight current (DC) voltage in points like batteries.
Alternating Current Voltage (ACV): Sometimes it will be represented with a V ~ instead. This setting is made use of to measure the voltage from alternating current resources, which is basically anything that links into an electrical outlet, along with the power coming from the outlet itself.
Resistance (Ω): This measures just how much resistance there is in the circuit. The lower the number, the simpler it is for the current to stream via, and also the other way around.
Continuity: Usually represented by a wave or diode icon. This just checks whether or not a circuit is total by sending a really percentage of current through the circuit and also seeing if it makes it out the various other end. Otherwise, after that there’s something along the circuit that’s creating a trouble– find it!
Direct Current Amperage (DCA): Similar to DCV, however rather of offering you a voltage reading, it will certainly tell you the amperage.
Straight Current Gain (hFE): This setting is to examine transistors as well as their DC gain, but it’s primarily worthless, given that the majority of electrical experts and also enthusiasts will make use of the continuity check rather.
Your multimeter may additionally have a committed setup for testing the amperage of AA, AAA, as well as 9V batteries. This setup is typically represented with the battery icon.
Once again, you most likely won’t even utilize fifty percent of the settings shown, so don’t get bewildered if you just recognize what a few of them do.
Exactly how to Utilize a Multimeter
For starters, let’s discuss some of the various components of a multimeter. At the really fundamental degree you have the device itself, together with 2 probes, which are the black as well as red wires that have plugs on one end and also metal pointers on the other.
The tool itself has a display screen at the top, which gives you your readout, and there’s a huge selection knob that you can spin around to select a certain setup. Each setup may also have various number worths, which are there to measure different staminas of voltages, resistances, as well as amps. So if you have your multimeter collection to 20 in the DCV section, it will certainly measure voltages up to 20 volts.
Your DMM will certainly also come with two or three ports for connecting in the probes:
- the COM port stands for “Common”, as well as the black probe will constantly connect into this port.
- the VΩmA port (sometimes represented as mAVΩ) is simply a phrase for voltage, resistance, and current (in milliamps). This is where the red probe will certainly link into if you’re measuring voltage, resistance, continuity, and current less than 200mA.
- the 10ADC port (often represented as just 10A) is used whenever you’re measuring current that’s more than 200mA. If you’re not exactly sure of the current draw, begin with this port. On the various other hand, you would certainly not utilize this port whatsoever if you’re measuring anything aside from current.
Caution: Make certain that if you’re measuring anything with a current higher than 200mA, you plug the red probe right into the 10A port, as opposed to the 200mA port. Otherwise you can blow the fuse that’s within of the multimeters. Furthermore, measuring anything over 10 amps can blow a fuse or destroy the multimeters as well.
Your measurement tool may have completely separate ports for measuring amps, while the various other port is specifically simply for voltage, resistance, as well as continuity, however most less expensive multimeters will certainly share ports.
Anyway, allow’s begin really utilizing a multimeter. We’ll be measuring the voltage of a AA battery, the current draw of a wall surface clock, as well as the continuity of a straightforward cable as some examples to get you began as well as accustomed to using a multimeter.
Components of Multimeters
Multimeters are composed by 4 important sections:
- Display: this specific is just where the dimensions are shown
- Selection Knob: this selects what you intend to measure
- Ports: this is where you connect in the probes
- Probes: a multimeter comes with 2 probes. Normally, one is red as well as the various other is black.
- “COM” or “–” port is where the black probe must be connected. The COM probe is traditionally black.
- 10A is used when measuring huge currents, above 200mA.
- µAmA is utilized to measure current.
- VΩ allows you to measure voltage as well as resistance and also examination continuity.
COM represent common and is usually connected to Ground or ‘-‘ of a circuit.The COM probe is conventionally black but there is no distinction in between the red probe and also black probe apart from color.
10A is the unique port used when measuring large currents (greater than 200mA).
The selection knob allows the user to set the tool to check out different things such as milliamps (mA) of current, voltage (V) and also resistance (Ω).
2 probes are linked into two of the ports on the front of the device. The probes have a banana kind connector on completion that links into the multimeter. Any probe with a banana plug will certainly collaborate with this meter. This permits for different types of probes to be utilized.
There are several kinds of probes readily available. Right here are a few of our faves:
- Banana to Alligator Clips: These are wonderful cords for attaching to big cables or pins on a breadboard. Great for performing longer term examinations where you do not have to have to hold the probes in location while you control a circuit.
- Banana to IC Hook: IC hooks work well on smaller sized ICs as well as legs of ICs.
- Banana to Tweezers: Tweezers are convenient if you are needing to test SMD parts.
- Banana to Test Probes: If you ever damage a probe, they are cheap to change!
To begin, allow’s measure voltage on a AA battery: Plug the black probe into COM and also the red probe right into mAVΩ. Establish to “2V” in the DC (straight current) range. Nearly all portable electronic devices utilize straight current), not alternating current. Attach the black probe to the battery’s ground or ‘-‘ as well as the red probe to power or ‘+’. Squeeze the probes with a little stress versus the favorable and also unfavorable terminals of the AA battery. If you’ve got a fresh battery, you need to see around 1.5 V on the display screen (this battery is brand-new, so its voltage is a little greater than 1.5 V).
You can easily measure DC voltage or AC voltage. The V with a straight line indicates DC voltage. The V with the bumpy line means AC voltage.
- Set the setting to V with a bumpy line if you’re measuring AC voltage or to the V with a straight line if you’re measuring DC voltage.
- Make sure the red probe is connected to the port with a V beside it.
- Connect the red probe to the silver lining of your component, which is where the current is coming from.
- Link the COM probe to the various other side of your component.
- Read the value on the screen.
Tip: to measure voltage you have to link your multimeter in parallel with the component you intend to measure the voltage. Putting the multimeter in parallel is placing each probe along the leads of the component you wish to measure the voltage.
Measuring a battery’s voltage
In this instance we’re mosting likely to measure the voltage of a 1.5 V battery. You recognize that you’ll have roughly 1.5 V. So, you need to pick an array with the selection knob that can review the 1.5 V. So you ought to choose 2V when it comes to this multimeter. If you obtain an autorange one, you don’t need to worry concerning the range you need to choose.
Start by switching on it, connecting the probes into their particular ports and afterwards setting the selection knob to the highest number worth in the DCV area, which in my instance is 500 volts. If you do not know a minimum of the voltage variety of the point you’re measuring, it’s constantly an excellent suggestion to begin with the highest worth first as well as after that work your method down till you get an accurate reading.
In this situation, we recognize the AA battery has a very low voltage, but we’ll start at 200 volts simply for the sake of instance. Next, place the black probe on the unfavorable end of the battery as well as the red probe on the favorable end. Take a look at the reading on the display. Since we have the multimeter set to a high 200 volts, it reveals “1.6” on the display, indicating 1.6 volts.
Nevertheless, I desire a more precise reading, so I’ll move the selection knob reduced to 20 volts. Below, you can see that we have a more accurate analysis that hovers between 1.60 as well as 1.61 volts. If you were to ever before establish the selection knob to a number worth lower than the voltage of the point you’re testing, the multimeter would simply read “1”, signifying that it’s overwhelmed. So if I were to establish the handle to 200 millivolts (0.2 volts), the 1.6 volts of the AA battery is excessive for the multimeter to handle at that setup.
Regardless, you could be asking why you would certainly require to check the voltage of something in the very first place. Well, in this case with the AA battery, we’re examining to see if it has any kind of juice left. At 1.6 volts, that’s a fully-loaded battery. Nonetheless, if it were to read 1.2 volts, it’s close to being pointless.
In an extra functional circumstance, you could do this type of measuring on an auto battery to see if it could be dying or if the alternator (which is what charges the battery) is going bad. An analysis in between 12.4-12.7 volts suggests that the battery remains in good condition. Anything reduced as well as that’s proof of a passing away battery. In addition, start your automobile up and rev it up a bit. If the voltage does not boost to around 14 volts or so, after that it’s likely that the generator is having issues.
What occurs if you pick a voltage setting that is as well reduced for the voltage you’re attempting to measure? Nothing poor. The meter will simply show a 1. This is the meter attempting to tell you that it is overloaded or out-of-range. Whatever you’re trying to read is too much for that certain setting. Try changing the multimeter handle to a the next highest possible setting.
Just why does the meter knob reviewed 20V as well as not 10V? If you’re wanting to measure a voltage much less than 20V, you resort to the 20V setting. This will enable you to read from 2.00 to 19.99. The first number on numerous multimeters is just able to show a ‘1’ so the varieties are limited to 19.99 rather than 99.99. Therefore the 20V max range as opposed to 99V max array.
Plug the red probe into the ideal port and turn the selection knob to the resistance section. After that, connect the probes to the resistor leads. The way you attach the leads does not matter, the outcome is the exact same.
Normal resistors have shade codes on them. If you don’t recognize what they indicate, that’s ok! There are lots of on-line calculators that are very easy to make use of. Nevertheless, if you ever discover on your own without web accessibility, a multimeter is very useful at measuring resistance.
Select an arbitrary resistor and also established the multimeter to the 20kΩ setup. Then hold the probes versus the resistor legs with the very same quantity of pressure you when pressing a secret on a key-board.
The meter will read one of 3 things, 0.00, 1, or the real resistor value.
In this case, the meter reviews 0.97, suggesting this resistor has a worth of 970Ω, or regarding 1kΩ (remember you are in the 20kΩ or 20,000 Ohm mode so you require to relocate the decimal three places to the right or 970 Ohms).
If the multimeter reviews 1 or shows OL, it’s strained. You will require to try a greater setting such as 200kΩ setting or 2MΩ (megaohm) setting. There is no harm if this occur, it merely indicates the range handle needs to be changed.
Whenever the multimeter reviews 0.00 or nearly no, after that you require to reduce the setting to 2kΩ or 200Ω.
Bear in mind that lots of resistors have a 5% resistance. This implies that the color codes might show 10,000 Ohms (10kΩ), however as a result of disparities in the manufacturing procedure a 10kΩ resistor might be as reduced as 9.5 kΩ or as high as 10.5 kΩ. Don’t stress, it’ll work just fine as a pull-up or general resistor.
As a rule of thumb, it’s unusual to see a resistor less than 1 Ohm. Keep in mind that measuring resistance is not perfect. Temperature can influence the reading a whole lot. Additionally, measuring resistance of a gadget while it is literally installed in a circuit can be really challenging. The bordering parts on a motherboard can significantly impact the analysis.
The mockup typically resembles with a fundamental clock running off of a AA battery. On the favorable side, the wire going from the battery to the clock is damaged up. We merely position our two probes in between that break to complete the circuit again (with the red probe connected to the power source), just this moment our multimeter will review out the amps that the clock is drawing, which in this instance is around 0.08 mA.
While many multimeters can additionally measure alternating current (AC), it’s not truly a great idea (particularly if its live power), given that AC can be hazardous if you wind up slipping up. If you need to see whether or not an outlet is functioning, use a non-contact tester instead.
To measure current you require to remember that components in series share a current. So, you need to attach your multimeter in collection with your circuit.
POINTER: to put the multimeter in series, you need to put the red probe on the lead of a component and the black probe on the next component lead. The multimeter acts as if it was a wire in your circuit. If you disconnect the multimeter, your circuit won’t function.
Prior to measuring the current, make certain that you’ve connected in the red probe in the appropriate port, in this situation µAmA. In the example below, the very same circuit of the previous example is utilized. The multimeter belongs to the circuit.
If there is extremely low resistance between two points, which is less than a couple of ohms, both points are electrically linked and you’ll listen to a continual sound. If the sound isn’t continual or if you do not listen to any kind of sound in all, it implies that what you’re testing has a faulty connection or isn’t connected in any way.
CAUTION: In order to examine continuity you need to shut off the system! Shut off the power supply.
Touch the 2 probes with each other and, as they are attached, you’ll listen to a constant sound.To examination the continuity of a cable, you just need to link each probe to the cord suggestions.
Continuity is an excellent means to examine if 2 SMD pins are touching. If your eyes can not see it, the multimeter is normally a wonderful second testing source. When a system is not working, continuity is one even more point to aid fix the system.
- Establish your multimeter to the continuity setting utilizing the selection knob.
- The readout on the screen will instantly check out “1”, which implies that there isn’t any continuity. This would certainly be proper considering that we have not linked the probes to anything yet.
- Next off, make certain the circuit is unplugged and also has no power. After that connect one probe to one end of the wire and the various other probe to the other end– no matter which probe goes on which end. If there is a total circuit, your multimeter will either beep, show a “0”, or something besides a “1”. If it still reveals a “1”, after that there’s an issue as well as your circuit isn’t complete.
- You can additionally evaluate that the continuity attribute functions on your multimeter by touching both probes per other. This finishes the circuit and your multimeter should let you understand that.
A continuity test tells us whether 2 points are electrically linked: if something is constant, an electric current can flow easily from one end to the various other.
If there’s no continuity, it implies there is a break somewhere in the circuit. This can indicate anything from a blown fuse or poor solder joint to an incorrectly wired circuit.
Changing the Fuse
Among one of the most usual mistakes with a brand-new multimeter is to measure current on a bread board by penetrating from VCC to GND. This will promptly short power to ground with the multimeter causing the bread board power supply to brown out. As the current rushes via the multimeter, the internal fuse will certainly warm up and after that melt out as 200mA flows with it. It will occur in an instant and also without any kind of real distinct or physical indicator that something is incorrect.
Bear in mind that measuring current is done in series (disrupt the VCC line to the breadboard or microcontroller to measure current). If you try to measure the current with a blown fuse, you’ll most likely notice that the meter checks out ‘0.00’ which the system does not activate like it ought to when you affix the multimeter. This is due to the fact that the interior fuse is damaged as well as serves as a busted cable or open.
To alter the fuse, discover your handy dandy mini screw vehicle driver, as well as begin obtaining screws. The components as well as PCB traces inside the multimeter are developed to take various quantities of current. You will certainly damage and also potentially ruin your multimeter if you inadvertently push 5A with the 200mA port.
There are times where you need to measure high current gadgets like an electric motor or heating element. Do you see the 2 locations to put the red probe on the front of the multimeter? 10A left wing and mAVΩ on the right? If you try to measure more than 200mA on the mAVΩ port you run the risk of blowing the fuse. However if you use the 10A port to measure current, you run a much lower danger of blowing the fuse. The compromise is sensitivity. As we spoke around above, by utilizing the 10A port and also knob setup, you will just be able to read to 0.01 A or 10mA. A lot of systems use even more than 10mA so the 10A setup as well as port functions well enough. If you’re attempting to measure very reduced power (mini or nano amps) the 200mA port with the 2mA, 200uA, or 20uA can be what you need.
You’re currently all set to utilize your digital multimeter to start measuring the globe around you. Do not hesitate to start utilizing it to respond to lots of inquiries. A digital multimeter will certainly answer numerous inquiries about electronics.
A multimeter is a necessary device in any kind of electronics laboratory. In this overview, we’ve shown you How To Use a Multimeter. You’ve learned just how to measure voltage, current and also resistance, and also just how to examine continuity.